Landscape Architecture in the News (September 16 – 30)

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SWA Group’s park at the base of JPMorgan Chase Tower in 2015 / Cody Duty, The Houston Chronicle

Award-winning Landscape Architect Creates Gardens That Elicit Emotions Star2, 9/18/18
“He does not sweat the small stuff in life but when it comes to his gardens, no detail is too small. Sweeping the top awards at the recent Singapore Garden Festival (SGF) 2018 is Malaysian veteran landscape architect Lim In Chong, better known as Inch Lim.”

‘For Me, This Is Paradise’: Life in the Spanish City That Banned Cars The Guardian, 9/18/18
“People don’t shout in Pontevedra – or they shout less. With all but the most essential traffic banished, there are no revving engines or honking horns, no metallic snarl of motorbikes or the roar of people trying make themselves heard above the din – none of the usual soundtrack of a Spanish city.”

Dallas May Now Get Two New Trinity River Parks D Magazine, 9/19/18
“Last Saturday, two groups held workshops planning their versions of the future Trinity River Park. Were they competitive or complementary?”

Buffalo’s Frederick Law Olmsted Legacy: the Park System That Started It All NewYorkUpstate.com, 9/20/18
“Frederick Law Olmsted is probably the best-known landscape architect in American history. And rightly so. In 1868, after designing New York’s Central Park and Brooklyn’s Prospect Park with his partner Calvert Vaux, Olmsted was invited to Buffalo, with the hope that he would design something similar here.”

Can You See the Future of Houston at Park(ing) Day? The Houston Chronicle, 9/21/18
“You may not totally get it,” says Lisa Girard, who helped organize Houston’s PARK(ing) Day this year with the regional chapter of the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) and the Rice Design Alliance (RDA). (Disclosure: I used to work for RDA and helped organize the event in the past.) “But you’re out there, which means you’re engaging, which means it’s doing its job. It’s creating a dialogue.”

National Parks Are Warming Twice as Fast as the U.S. Overall High Country News, 9/24/18
“Climate change is having an outsized impact on national parks in the U.S., according to research conducted by scientists at the National Park Service, the University of California Berkeley and the University of Wisconsin Madison.”

A Call for Prescribed Burns in Forests

Prescribed burn in Yosemite National Park / PBS

Across the United States, there has been a five-fold increase in wildfires over the past few decades. In 2017 alone, there were some 100,000 wildfires that burned some 10 million acres. With climate change, the zone in which trees burn has increased by two-thirds.

Unwise management of forests has only exacerbated the impacts of our changing climate. Instead of setting prescribed burns to manage fires, like Native Americans have done for centuries, natural resource policymakers suppressed all wildfires in an effort to protect communities. The result has been an explosion in difficult-to-control wildfires.

At Science to Action Day, an event associated with the Global Climate Action Summit, in San Francisco, Patrick Gonzalez, principal climate change scientist with the U.S. National Park Service, said “a century of suppressing wildfires has built up fuel in forests.”

When all fires are suppressed, smaller, more frequent fires can’t clear out dead trees and underbrush. The result is accumulated flammable biomass that eventually explodes into unmanageable conflagrations.

Many state-level forestry departments have suppressed fires because more and more communities are now living in — or close to — areas that once frequently burned.

It’s an inherently risky and short-sighted approach to development. And communities in these wildfire zones aren’t just risking their property but also their long-term health.

Kari Nadeau, a professor of pediatrics at Stanford University, argued that “there is no safe distance from a wildfire.” Inhaling smoke itself is hazardous. But blazes that consume homes and garages filled with household cleaners like Drano release other dangerous particles into the atmosphere.

“Even one part per million” of toxic wildfire smoke negatively impacts those highest at risk — children, the elderly, and those with asthma.

After five days of wildfires in California, the number of hospital visits for asthma attacks went up a whopping 400 percent. And the number of strokes increased by 42 percent. Being exposed to just one wildfire’s worth of smoke is equal to smoking a pack of cigarettes every day for a year. “That’s the real data.”

Nadeau said there is important research being conducted on prescribed burns, which are smaller, more contained fires that revitalize forest ecosystem function.

“We need to support the increased use of this practice. It can be done safely.” When small, fires give off smaller amounts of nasty pollutants. Burns can also be scheduled when air pollution levels are low and the wind is blowing away from neighboring communities.

Jonathan Jarvis, former director of the National Park Service and now head of the Institute for Parks, People, and Biodiversity at University of California at Berkeley, argued that national parks may be the best place to try out climate adaptation approaches like controlled burns. “We need to experiment at the landscape scale — at the scale of very large ecosystems.” Indeed, the National Park Service is now prescribing burns in Yellowstone and Yosemite National Parks, as is the U.S. Forest Service in some of its forests, but the approach needs to become more widespread.

In the interim, there is a need for better early warning systems for communities at risk from fast-moving wildfires. Ben Lee Preston, director of infrastructure resilience at RAND, said remote sensing technologies can be installed in the landscape to give communities and firefighters more advance notice. We would add there is a need to use landscape design to fireproof homes and relocate homeowners in very high-risk areas to other locations.

Wildfires are responsible for the majority of the carbon natural systems released into the atmosphere. But forests that have undergone a prescribed burn are estimated to release less carbon over time, given the controlled burn improves their overall ecological health.

New Report: US Cities Already Feeling Impacts of Climate Change

Flooding from Hurricane Harvey in Port Arthur, Texas / Wikipedia

According to a new report from the Alliance for a Sustainable Future, some 95 percent of 158 American cities surveyed have experienced a “change related to at least one climate impact in the past five years.” A vast majority of cities — some 76 percent — have seen more damage from heavy rain events or inland flooding. 65 percent saw greater impacts from heat waves; 51 percent noted changing drought conditions; and 18 percent stated that wildfires were growing more destructive. Some 5 percent of cities have relocated populations due to extreme weather.

The Alliance for a Sustainable Future, a joint effort of the U.S. Conference of Mayors and the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES), polled some 158 small, medium, and large U.S. cities in both red and blue states that represent some 50 million Americans. The group presented their findings at an event at the Global Climate Action Summit in San Francisco.

To address changing impacts, the report stated that 60 percent of cities have “launched or significantly expanded a climate initiative or policy in the past year.”

Most common climate-smart policies and programs include:

  • Bus transit (94 percent)
  • Bike lanes (92 percent)
  • Promoting bicycle commuting (81 percent)
  • Greenhouse gas emission tracking (75 percent)
  • Energy efficiency policies for existing municipal buildings (72 percent)
  • Routine energy audits for municipal buildings / operations (71 percent)
  • Energy efficiency policies for new municipal buildings (70 percent)
  • Purchasing renewable electricity for city operations (65 percent)

Some 83 percent of cities also seek to increase their partnerships with businesses in order to achieve their goals for renewable energy, building energy efficiency, and sustainable transportation.

At the event hosted by the U.S. Conference of Mayors and C2SE in San Francisco, C2SE president Bob Persciasepe, who was deputy administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) during the Obama administration, said cities must dramatically scale up their partnerships with the private sector, especially given the absence of any meaningful federal action on climate change.

“From 1850 to 1999, we put 1,000 gigatons of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. From 2000 to 2018, we put in 500 gigatons. We can only put in 300 more gigatons before we start to see catastrophic effects. That means we can put in 30 tons a year for the next 10 years. We don’t have much time. We must increase our ambitions. We must build more partnerships so we can go faster.”

Mayors then highlighted a few partnerships between city governments and businesses that demonstrate how to achieve a carbon-neutral economy and society:

Mayor Jackie Biskupski from Salt Lake City, Utah, explained how her city partnered with Rocky Mountain Power to create a plan for achieving 100 percent clean energy for all municipal operations, including Salt Lake City airport, by 2032. As part of their agreement the city, Rocky Mountain Power expanded their WattSmart communities program, which offers incentives and discounts for energy upgrades in homes and businesses, and promised to spend $10 million on electric vehicle infrastructure, including a new e-bus charging complex.

Des Moines Mayor Frank Cownie said Iowan governments at all levels are partnering with MidAmerican Energy to achieve 100 percent renewable power for the entire state. The company has invested $7.5 billion in Iowan wind farms since 2004.

And Mayor John Mitchell from New Bedford, Massachusetts, said his old whaling city is now a port for the giant wind turbines that will soon be installed off the coasts of Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York. Vineyard Wind, a company established by Danish off-shore wind firms, is already using New Bedford to launch a $2.2 billion wind farm off the coast of Martha’s Vineyard with turbines approximately double the size of ones found on land.

Mayor Mitchell said the US offshore wind market is on the “cusp of a rapid expansion” and could potentially overtake the capacity installed in Europe’s North Sea. “Millions of square miles of the east coast have already been leased by renewable energy companies.” He also sees opportunities for state and local governments to partner with offshore wind companies in California, Hawaii, and elsewhere.

PARK(ing) Day Showcases the Power of Public Space

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Happy Parking Day from ASLA! #aslapd18

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On Friday, September 21, landscape architects and designers around the world participated in the 14th annual PARK(ing) Day to demonstrate the power of public space. PARK(ing) Day helps the public see the difference a designed space, even one as small as a metered parking spot, can make in their community.

The Landscape Architecture Bureau (LAB) in Washington, D.C. gave passersby an opportunity to simply relax and read on a Friday afternoon.

The DLR Group in Sacramento, California, let people use the space to play some classic video games, if they worked for it.

OLIN in Philadelphia created a landscape made of paper for the public to immerse themselves in.

The Kansas State University Chapter of the American Society of Landscape Architects used their parklet to educate people about the benefits of trees.

Landscape designers at Quackenbush Architects in Columbia, South Carolina, demonstrated what exactly fits in a parking space other than a car.

ASLA’s members posted 424 times using our PARK(ing) Day hashtag, #ASLAPD18. View all of the posts on our tagboard.

A Romantic Kind of Resilient Design

Hunters Point South Waterfront Park Phase 2 / David Lloyd, SWA, courtesy SWA/Balsley and Weiss/Manfredi

The first part of Hunter’s Point South Watefront Park, which opened in August 2013, announced a new era of park-making in New York City. The first significant waterfront park in years, Hunter’s Point South in Long Island City, Queens, was not only an example of stunning landscape design but also a manufactured place that can withstand storms and sea level rise — and be fully resilient to a changing climate.

Now, five years later, the 5.5-acre phase two of Hunter’s Point South Waterfront Park has opened, extending south, so the entire park now encompasses 11 acres in total. The new segment provide a green buffer for the 30-acre development that will eventually be home to 5,000 units of housing in multiple towers, 60 percent of which will be affordable.

In contrast to the first phase of the park, which includes a playground, sports field, and restaurant, phase two feels like more of a true escape from the city — a green oasis right on the East River.

Hunters Point South Waterfront Park Phase 2 / David Lloyd, SWA, courtesy SWA/Balsley and Weiss/Manfredi

According to SWA/Balsley, the landscape architects, and Weiss/Manfredi, the architects — who co-designed the park and partnered with engineers at Arup on the project — this section of the park is also a model of resilient design. But its approach is a bit different from the first phase. Instead of the muscular waterfront promenade designed to survive any onslaught, phase two takes a “soft” approach, using tidal marshes to protect the coast of Queens.

There is a meandering waterfront passage, with romantic lighting at night, that brings visitors right up to the very edge of the East River. Walking there one sunset, it was surreal to both commune with nature while taking in the breathtaking views of Manhattan across the river.

The path loops through the tidal marsh, where visitors can see all the plants growing in.

Hunters Point Park South, Phase 2 / Albert Vecerka, ESTO, courtesy SWA/Balsley and Weiss/Manfredi

Thomas Balsley, FASLA, principal at SWA/Balsley, told us: “The tidal marsh required an engineered rip-rap embankment, the top of which we transformed into a lush trail on which to stroll. The journey takes in shifting marsh habitat and skyline perspectives.”

Hunters Point South Waterfront Park, Phase 2 / David Lloyd, SWA, courtesy SWA/Balsley and Weiss/Manfredi

Both low and high marsh plants were used to stabilize the sediment and control shoreline bank erosion. A variety of plants also enhance the quality of the water and provided habitat for a range of aquatic and terrestrial wildlife.

Paths in the interior of the park and along the waterfront take you to a dramatic overlook, an elevated promenade that brings you up and immerses you in the skyline of New York City. Cantilevering 50 feet out over the landscape and some 20 feet up in the air, the overlook creates the sense you are in the bow of a great ship.

Hunters Point South Waterfront Park Phase 2 / David Lloyd, SWA, courtesy SWA/Balsley and Weiss/Manfredi

In contrast to the first phase, there are also many more nooks and crannies, areas the designers call “break-out lounges,” off the various pathways. These intimate spaces, often hidden in tall native bluestem grasses, enhance the sense of retreating into nature. Criss-crossing pathways through the grasses seem designed to invite further investigation and discovery.

Exploring the site, visitors will come across Luminescence, an art installation by New York-based artist Nobuho Nagasawa, which represents the phases of the moon through etched concrete discs that glow at night.

Hunters Point South Waterfront Park, Phase 2 / Bill Tatham, SWA, courtesy SWA/Balsley and Weiss/Manfredi

The second phase of Hunter’s Point South waterfront park and related infrastructure for the housing development cost some $100 million, which was financed by the NYC Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC). The entire park was designed in partnership with NYC Parks and Recreation, which also manages and maintains it.

Unequal Progress in the Renewable Energy Transition

Solar powered electric buses in the United Kingdom / The Ecologist

Around the world, adoption of renewable energy is expanding rapidly, but progress within the energy field has been one-sided. The electricity sector has made much more progress than the building and transportation sectors in changing over to renewable energy, despite significant demand.

During an event for the Global Climate Action Summit in San Francisco, Rana Adib, executive secretary of Ren21, an international non-profit association based in Paris, said the discrepancy comes down to an issue of ambition.

Many countries have power generation targets, but far fewer have set goals for increasing renewable energy in buildings and transportation systems. What’s more, targets set in the power sector have been more aggressive, with many countries aiming for 100 percent renewable power in their electricity systems.

Comparatively, goals set for buildings and transport have been more modest and less imaginative. Slow progress in these sectors is compounded by the significance of their energy footprint. Together, buildings and transport account for 80 percent of global energy demand.

2017 was an extraordinary year for renewable energy in the power sector. Total installed renewable energy capacity increased 9 percent over 2016 — the largest annual increase to date — and supplied over 26 percent of global electricity.

“It’s a no brainer to invest in renewable power,” she said, adding that investments in new renewable energy capacity were about three times that of new fossil fuels and have been driven by advances in solar photovoltaic (pv) and wind, which have far outpaced projected growth due to advances in policy, cost competiveness, storage technology, and grid integration.

According to REN21’s 2018 Global Status Report solar pv installed capacity “…nearly double those of wind power (in second place) — adding more net capacity than coal, natural gas and nuclear power combined.”

But where the power sector is making exponential gains, renewable energy progress in transportation and buildings lag far behind.

Electrifying transportation systems is the first step, then these systems can use renewable power. Last year, renewable energy accounted for only 3 percent of the energy share in transport, which currently relies largely on liquid biofuels, accounting for 90 percent of current energy. But electrification has gained traction through electric rail, shipping, and aviation systems and the expansion of electric vehicle sales.

Just over 10 percent of heating systems in buildings use renewable energy, and progress remains slow for renewables in cooling despite growing demand in the sector.

To achieve a total renewable energy transition, Adib said we need a systems approach that brings together all of the sectors.

Adib’s remarks kicked off a panel discussion on how to turn aspirations into reality. Speakers underscored the need to better collaborate and invite new voices to join the dialogue.

“The main thing is proper collaboration between the different layers in which we operate in,” said Lasse Bruun, the global head of energy transition at Climate Action Network (CAN). He said that people working to advance renewable energy need to work with non-profit organizations, cities, businesses, and community members.

He added: “it’s also because people still do not make the link between renewable energy and what happens in their own lives.”

Antonio Mozqueira, senior manager of climate change policy with the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) Government, reiterated the importance of building awareness of the value of renewable energy in communities.

The ACT government aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40 percent from 1990 levels by 2020 and a 100 percent renewable energy target by 2020 — the most ambitious targets set in Australia. Engaging people is essential to achieving these targets. To successfully change a community’s behavior, advocates for renewable systems have to present more desirable alternatives.

“If you have a public bus system that everyone hates you really have to address that. You have to look at how to make it more convenient and efficient.”

“How do you incentivize people so they’ll think about leaving the car at home or not buying that second car and take public transport? And if people are really so attached to their cars, how can we actually move them to the path of buying more efficient, fuel-efficient cars?”

Jens Neilsen, founder and CEO of World Climate LTD, said the solution won’t be found in just one part of the renewable energy arena. In addition to policy, he noted the need for cheaper storage.

And from an investment standpoint, subsidies in fossil fuels continue to outpace those for renewable energy. “To achieve the energy transition, you need a whole systems change.”

As we think critically about how to increase renewable energy use, we need to define the future we seek to create.

“Advancing environmental and social well-being is integrated with this energy transformation,” said Paulette Middleton, secretary of the board of directors of the International Solar Energy Society. “We have already gone over the tipping point.”

California Creates New Hope with Bold Climate Leadership

Governor Jerry Brown at Climate Action Summit / The Nation

We are at the half way point between the United Nations Paris climate accord in 2015 and the next round of commitments that will be made by the international community in 2020, the year in which greenhouse gas emissions must peak if we are going to limit warming to below 1.5 degrees Celsius. To increase the pressure to reach even more ambitious greenhouse gas reduction goals, California Governor Jerry Brown hosted the Global Climate Action Summit in San Francisco last week.

One take away from the summit is that reducing emissions by 25 or 50 percent simply no longer cuts it. The state of California, which is the fifth largest economy in the world, announced ambitious plans to convert to 100 percent renewable energy and become carbon neutral by 2045. The announcement showed great leadership and sent an undeniable message to other state governors and national leaders around the world: if a complex economy and society like California can do it, why can’t you? A slew of global cities have also made the same commitment.

According to the summit organizers, “over 70 big cities, home to some 425 million citizens, are now committed to carbon neutrality by 2050, including Accra, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Mexico City. These actions alone will lead to a 2.5 percent cut of annual global greenhouse gas emissions and the avoidance of 12 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050.”

Through the two-day conference, cities were highlighted as critical to achieving targets, given they account for more than half of the world’s population and 70 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions.

While New York City, Washington, D.C. Stockholm, London, Sydney, and others have committed to achieving neutrality, many more cities are now starting their own low-carbon journey, potentially leading to even greater gains over coming decades.

Summit organizers write: “a further 9,100 cities representing 800 million citizens are now committed to city-wide climate action plans. This could lead to reductions of more than 60 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent between now and 2050.” There are an estimated 50,000 cities worldwide, which shows that far more widespread action is needed though.

In addition to the states and cities that have ratcheted up their ambitions, hundreds of global companies announced their commitment to achieve 100 percent renewable energy use by 2050. “This includes nearly 150 major global companies such as Tata Motors and Sony. Collective annual revenues of these companies total well over US $2.75 trillion, and their annual electricity demand is higher than that of Poland.”

The ZEV Challenge, an alliance organized by the Climate Group, also made major announcements around de-carbonizing transportation systems by moving to zero-carbon electric vehicles, buses, trams, etc. Transportation accounts for up to a third of global emissions.

Twelve governments, including Catalonia, Scotland, and Washington State, representing some 80 million people, announced they will have 100 percent zero emission public fleets by 2030. Furthermore, “26 cities with 140 million people are committed to buy only zero emission buses starting in 2025, but also creating zero emission areas in their cities starting in 2030.” And 23 multi-national companies such as IKEA have agreed to take their fleets zero emission. To achieve widespread EVs, these groups will also create 3.5 million zero emission vehicle charging stations by 2025.

Major efforts were launched to improve the sustainability of the built environment. The World Green Building Council (WorldGBC) launched the Net Zero Carbon Buildings Commitment, with 38 signatories, including 12 businesses, 22 cities, and four states and regions. In addition to the commitments by state and regional governments, “businesses representing US$ 22.95 billion in revenue throughout the building and construction supply chain, have set ambitious targets to eliminate operational carbon emissions from their building portfolios of over 10.7 million square meters by 2030.”

There were also some actions to promote more sustainable land-use and greater protection of forests and oceans. As part of the 30×30 Challenge, the Global Environment Facility (GEF) announced $500 million in new funds for sustainable land use and forest conservation. A group of nine philanthropic organizations made a comparable commitment of $459 million for the protection and expansion of forests and lands through 2022, with the goal of bolstering indigenous peoples’ and traditional communities’ ability to govern their lands. Other big commitments: Ecuador, Norway, and Germany launched a Pro-Amazonia initiative, with $50 million dedicated to conserving 1.36 million hectares of rainforest. But while these steps were welcome, they are far from enough. Deforestation has reached new highs around the world, and the situation is now dire, with nearly 30 million hectares of forest lost in 2016 alone.

To improve access to green financing, the Investor Agenda was launched. Some 400 investors with US $32 trillion under management, an amount thirty percent larger than the US economy, are now focused on “accelerating and scaling-up financial flows into climate action and building a more sustainable, low-carbon, global economy.” As an example, NYC’s pension fund will invest $4 billion in green projects, and some of the largest pension funds in Denmark and Canada will dramatically ramp up their investment in renewable energy and climate-smart technologies. To spur more sustainable capital and infrastructure project financing, new cities and financial institutions joined the Green Bond Pledge, which aims to create US $1 trillion in green bonds by 2020.

Still, an incredible amount of work remains for the US to simply meet the Obama administration commitment at the Paris climate accord — 26 percent reduction in emissions by 2025. Current estimates have us on track to achieve about half the goal. Hopefully, the leadership and progress we saw at the summit will inspire a broader coalition to get there.

Connecting Climate Change to Places We Love

Seeds adapted to an arid climate growing at Ndée Bikíyaa (The People’s Farm) near Canyon Day, Arizona / Native Seeds

“What is at the intersection of climate action and cultural heritage?,” asked Andrew Potts, organizer of Climate Heritage Mobilization, a day-long conference, which was part of the Climate Action Summit in San Francisco. “What does cultural preservation woke to climate change look like?”

To find out, the conference organizers used a “Talanoa dialogue.” In Fiji and other Pacific locales, the word “Talanoa” describes discussion and storytelling that is inclusive, transparent, and improves the collective good. Here, the Talanoa dialogue for climate action involved exchanging ideas and examples from communities around the world so they may be leveraged elsewhere.

The dialogue underscored cultural heritage as an issue of human rights. “There are so many other threats—why should we care about cultural heritage?” asked Karima Bennoune, the UN Special Rapporteur in the Field of Cultural Rights. Citing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, she pointed to every individual’s right to participate in cultural life. Heritage, she explained, is important because it is an expression of human dignity.

Comprising both the tangible and intangible, cultural heritage brushes every facet of life. It includes sites, structures, and landscapes that have historical, religious, aesthetic values. Spiritual beliefs, vernacular languages, storytelling traditions, and indigenous knowledge also constitute cultural heritage.

When climate change affects any of these—for instance, the 100-plus World Heritage sites that risk damage or forced migration in the face of rising oceans—human rights are affected.

A human-rights based approach acknowledges and values indigenous communities and their sustainable land stewardship. By emphasizing participation and consultation of affected people, their long-held knowledge of a place can critically inform life in a changing world.

Andrea Carmen of the Yaqui Nation, and executive director of the International Indian Treaty Council, commented that seed-trading traditions have perpetuated drought-resistant varieties of crops.

The tule marshes of the San Francisco Bay demonstrate the shared benefits of climate resilience and cultural heritage. These sacred sites of the Native Americans can also absorb ten times more carbon than a pine forest. “A nation stays alive when its cultures stay alive,” said Bennoune.

Historic preservation, which is about peoples’ connection to place, can enable climate change mitigation.

Kenneth Kimmell, president of the Union of Concerned Scientists, remarked that linking climate and historic preservation help the grave realities resonate with a wider audience. Cultural heritage “connects climate change to places we love and care about.”

He has seen the most effective action on the local scale, such as the Weather It Together initiative that identifies and protects flood-prone areas in historic Annapolis, Maryland, and the 3-D modeling of the World Heritage site Hoi An, Vietnam, that marks flood risks to important buildings.

The “Weather it Together” initiative seeks to protect the historic seaport in Annapolis, Maryland / City of Annapolis

Buildings are not only a key part of communities’ cultural heritage, but their preservation is also important for the climate. Using, rather than demolishing, existing buildings can significantly impact a city’s carbon footprint. According to Carl Elefante, president of the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the greatest difference cities can make is to “simply occupy space” by using existing buildings, keeping their embodied carbon intact.

Daniel Zarrilli, director of climate policy and programs for New York City, demonstrated that New York City is moving toward mandatory building retrofits, crucial as 80 to 90 percent of the city’s buildings will still exist in 2050.

David Harkin, a climate change scientist at Historic Environment Scotland, explained the positive outcomes that can result from upgrades. At Edinburgh Castle, renovation yielded annual reductions in energy use by 33 percent and emissions by 31 percent—changes that, in a few short years, have already saved them double what they invested to make the improvements.

Energy savings from recent upgrades are especially apparent at Edinburgh Castle in Edinburgh, Scotland / Wikipedia

Jean Carroon, principal at Goody Clancy Architects, stressed the imperative to change consumption patterns. The built environment requires materials that devastate lives around the world: silica arrives from China by the labor of those suffering from silicosis; and copper from Africa, “where working in the copper mines is a death sentence.” Living as citizens of the world foremost entails comprehending that our actions reverberate worldwide.

Climate Heritage Mobilization demonstrated the powerful means through which cultural heritage can galvanize climate action. Whether by enacting policies that validate knowledge of indigenous people or by requiring retrofits, it becomes clear that, in the words of Carroon, “a safe, healthy world values what exists.”

This guest post is by Grace Mitchell, Student ASLA, Master’s of Landscape Architecture candidate, University of California at Berkeley.

Urban Planners Mobilize for Climate Action

“Horizontal berm” from ouR-Home proposal / Resilient by Design Bay Area Challenge

All cities need robust plans for mitigating and adapting to climate change. But according to Robert Kelew with UN-Habitat, the vast majority of the world’s urban communities still don’t.

At an event organized by the American Planning Association (APA) at SPUR in San Francisco, a group of urban planners, led by the APA’s Jeff Soule, discussed what’s needed to mobilize the world’s urban planners to take more effective action on the climate.

Kelew said a primary obstacle to more widespread urban climate planning is simply the lack of planners in developing countries. For example, “there are 38 accredited planners per 100,000 people in the United Kingdom, but just 0.23 per 100,000 in India,” and even fewer in Sub-Saharan Africa. Also, there are only 553 schools that teach urban planning worldwide.

To help speed up assistance to the developing world, a group of national planning associations and educators formed Planners for Climate Action, which launched at a UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) meeting last November. Planners for Climate Action aims to create a “global repository of syllabi and map the state of climate change planning in cities,” issuing regular updates.

For Andrew Potts, a land-use attorney who represented the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), planners also need to do a better job of bringing historic preservation allies into the fight. There are clear overlaps between historic preservation and planning, but all the associated “heritage professionals” — scientists, planners, architects, landscape architects — haven’t been adequately included. In the US alone, “we can mobilize tens of thousands of heritage professionals to join the fight for climate action.”

Potts believes cultural heritage, including what UNESCO deems “intangible heritage,” has the potential to be a great motivating force for climate action. If what is special about a city or community is directly threatened by climate change, there will be a call to create a plan or project to protect that. Heritage professionals, who are used to working over long-time horizons, can also help communities make the connections between heritage preservation and climate change. “Every place with heritage has a climate story.”

Michael Boswell, head of the city and regional planning department at California Poly San Luis Obispo and a representative from the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning (ASCP), has been studying what cities with successful climate action plans are doing and has authored a UN-Habitat-sponsored report to help planning departments ramp up efforts in their cities.

The most important success factor in these cities is having a “climate champion — a mayor, community activist with authority, or municipal planning staff,” so this person or group of people needs to be either identified and supported or grown locally. Climate-smart cities also lead by example by reducing emissions from their own government operations first; communicate the multiple benefits of climate action, such as the benefits of biking for health or electric vehicles and renewable energy in reducing air pollution; engage the public through direct communications efforts; build partnerships; assemble “green teams” in mayors’ offices; and institutionalize action.

Sandy Mendler, a principal at Mithun, who participated in the Resilient by Design Bay Area Challenge through the ouR Home team, believes that planners must be focused on forging truly equitable city-wide development plans that don’t push out vulnerable populations. She argued that even in San Francisco, which has been a leader in climate action, the Bay area’s comprehensive plan through 2040 fails to meet affordable housing needs or further prevent gentrification of vulnerable areas. “The goal is zero displacement of existing communities. Without the plan, there would be a 20 percent increase in displacement through 2040; with the plan, there would still be 9 percent. That’s our best plan, and it’s not solving the problem.”

She said climate plans must also take into better account the unintended consequences of good intentions. For example, in California, the carbon cap and trade system has resulted in increased air pollution in low-income urban areas, because “power plants in high-value neighborhoods were cleaned up first, which meant that dirtier power generation was running longer in low-income communities.” California Global Warming Solutions Act from 2006 was just re-authorized last year, but this time with a companion bill (AB 197), environmental justice legislation that will dedicate a quarter of the funds from cap and trade to the the communities hit hardest by its effects.

Mendler also said cities must put “priority resilience areas,” which can protect communities through the use of green infrastructure, ahead of “priority development areas,” like the ones identified in the Plan Bay Area 2040.

The problem is many of the areas the bay area city governments have deemed ripe for future redevelopment are in flood zones, filled with brownfields, and inhabited by already-vulnerable populations. All of those brownfields are “time bombs” because if sea level rise causes them to permanently flood, they will spread toxins into the water supply. Brownfields must instead be redeveloped as green infrastructure — “permeable sponges” or “horizontal berms” that can reduce storm impacts, boost community and ecological resilience, and support biodiversity.

At the end, ASLA CEO Nancy Somerville, Hon. ASLA, was invited to provide comments. She argued that focusing on the multiple social and environments benefits of climate action and maintaining a “laser focus on equity” are key. But she cautioned that the “balkanized” approach to climate change taken within many city governments is a major obstacle holding back more ambitious action.

Landscape Architecture in the News Highlights (September 1 – 15)

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Brazilian landscape architects and designers, from ArchDaily. Alex Hanazaki Paisagismo / copyright Demian Golovaty

Can We Integrate Natural Ecosystems in Urban Asian Spaces? GreenBiz, 9/4/18
“Emerging Asian economies are fast expanding, and an associated phenomenon has been that of rapid urbanization. However, due to rapid growth, urban spaces are giving way to real estate developments for residential and commercial purposes.”

Landscape Architects Can’t Rely on Architecture-centric Media Dezeen, 9/5/18
“Landscape architects need to fly the flag for their profession if they are to receive the recognition they rightly demand and deserve, says Charles A Birnbaum.”

Gathering Place Architect: the People of Tulsa Will Shape Park’s Future Tulsa World, 9/7/18
“First, we wanted to understand what he had in mind, what he was trying to accomplish,” explains Michael Van Valkenburgh, the well-known landscape architect responsible for designing Tulsa’s new Gathering Place. “Then we wanted to get to know Tulsa, try to get inside the soul of the city.”

17 Contemporary Brazilian Landscape Architects Arch Daily, 9/8/18
“Landscape architecture is responsible for the transformation and resignification of the landscape, either by enriching architecture or by bringing forth the history of the site. As with buildings, when we design with vegetation it allows us to work a series of stimuli, qualities, and functions.”

Changing China: Luxury Living Is Now About Being Green and Respecting the Planet The South China Morning Post, 9/9/18
“In 20 years working on projects in China, landscape architect Scott Slaney has noticed what he describes as ‘the arc of change.’”