ASLA Announces 2018 Professional Awards

ASLA 2018 Professional General Design Award of Excellence. Brooklyn Bridge Park, Brooklyn, New York. Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates / Image

The American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) proudly announces the 25 winners of the ASLA 2018 Professional Awards. Selected from 368 entries, the awards recognize the best of landscape architecture in the general design, analysis and planning, communications, research and residential design categories from the United States and around the world.

The winners will receive their awards at the ASLA 2018 Annual Meeting and EXPO in Philadelphia on Monday, October 22, at the Pennsylvania Convention Center.

The September issue of Landscape Architecture Magazine (LAM) features the winning projects and is available for free.

Winning projects are designated as either an honor award or an award of excellence, which is the highest possible distinction.

General Design Category

Award of Excellence
Brooklyn Bridge Park: A Twenty Year Transformation, Brooklyn, New York
by Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates (Brooklyn, New York) for Brooklyn Bridge Park

Honor Awards
Chicago Riverwalk | State Street to Franklin Street, Chicago
by Sasaki (Watertown, Massachusetts) and Ross Barney Architects (Chicago) for the Chicago Department of Transportation

Iqaluit Municipal Cemetery, Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada
by LEES+Associates (Vancouver, B.C., Canada) for the City of Iqaluit

Legacy and Community: Juxtaposing Heritage and Invention for Duke University’s West Campus, Durham, North Carolina
by Reed Hilderbrand LLC Landscape Architecture (Cambridge, Massachusetts) for Duke University

Longwood Gardens Main Fountain Garden, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania
by West 8 Urban Design & Landscape Architecture (Rotterdam, Netherlands) for Longwood Gardens Inc.

Re-Envisioning Pulaski Park, Northampton, Massachusetts
by STIMSON (Cambridge, Massachusetts) for the City of Northampton

Tippet Rise Art Center, Fishtail, Montana
by Oehme, van Sweden | OvS (Washington, D.C.) for Tippet Rise Art Center

Tongva Park and Ken Genser Square, Santa Monica, California
by James Corner Field Operations LLC (New York) for the City of Santa Monica

Walker Art Center Wurtele Upper Garden, Minneapolis
by Inside | Outside + HGA (Minneapolis) for the Walker Art Center

Analysis and Planning Category

ASLA 2018 Professional Analysis and Planning Award of Excellence.
A Colorado Legacy: I-25 Conservation Corridor Master Plan, Douglas County, Colorado. Design Workshop (Aspen, Colorado) for The Conservation Fund / Image

Award of Excellence
A Colorado Legacy: I-25 Conservation Corridor Master Plan, Douglas County, Colorado
by Design Workshop (Aspen, Colorado) for The Conservation Fund

Honor Awards
Extending Our History, Embracing Our Future, Madison, Wisconsin
by SmithGroup (Ann Arbor, Michigan) for University of Wisconsin-Madison

From Pixels to Stewardship: Advancing Conservation Through Digital Innovation, Austin, Texas
by Andropogon Associates Ltd. (Philadelphia) for the Shield-Ayres-Bowen Family

Iowa Blood Run Cultural Landscape Master Plan, Madison, Wisconsin
by Quinn Evans Architects (Madison, Wisconsin) for Iowa Department of Natural Resources (Todd Coffelt, Michelle Wilson, John Pearson, Frank Rickerl, Pat Schlarbaum, and Kevin Pape), State Historical Society of Iowa (Jen Bancescu, Doug Jones, Susan Kloewer, and Steve King), Iowa Office of the State Archaeologist

Willamette Falls Riverwalk, Oregon City, Oregon
by Snøhetta (New York) for Project Partners: Oregon Metro, City of Oregon City; Clackamas County; State of Oregon; PGE Falls Legacy LLC

Communications Category

ASLA 2018 Professional Communications Award of Excellence. 100 Years of Landscape Architecture at The Ohio State University. Landscape Architecture Section, Knowlton School, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio / Image

Award of Excellence
100 Years of Landscape Architecture at The Ohio State University
by Landscape Architecture Section, Knowlton School, The Ohio State University (Columbus, Ohio)

Honor Awards
Homeplace: Conversation Guides for Six Communities, Rebuilding After Hurricane Matthew
by NC State University Coastal Dynamics Design Lab (Raleigh, North Carolina) for the Hurricane Matthew Disaster Recovery and Resilience Initiative (HMDRRI)

Marnas: A Journey through Space, Time, and Ideas
by Anne Whiston Spirn, FASLA

VanPlay: Plan to Play
by Design Workshop Inc. (Denver) for the Vancouver Park Board

Research Category

Honor Awards
Atlas for the End of the World – Atlas for the Beginning of the Anthropocene
by Richard Weller, ASLA, University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia)

Design with Dredge: Resilient Landscape Infrastructure in the Chesapeake Bay, Baltimore, Maryland
by Mahan Rykiel Associates (Baltimore, Maryland) for the Maryland Port Administration

Urban Aquatic Health: Integrating New Technologies and Resiliency into Floating Wetlands, Baltimore
by Ayers, Saint, and Gross (Baltimore) for the National Aquarium

Residential Design Category

ASLA 2018 Professional Residential Award of Excellence. Balcones Residence, Austin, Texas. Word + Carr Design Group (formerly known as Mark Word Design) / Image

Award of Excellence
Balcones Residence, Austin, Texas
by Word + Carr Design Group (formerly known as Mark Word Design) (Austin, Texas)

Honor Awards
Sustaining A Cultural Icon: Reconciling Preservation and Stewardship in a Changing World, Newport, Rhode Island
by Reed Hilderbrand LLC Landscape Architecture (Cambridge, Massachusetts) for Dorrance Hill Hamilton

Yard, Portland, Oregon
by 2.ink Studio (Portland, Oregon) for the Key Development Group

The Landmark Award recognizes a distinguished landscape architecture project completed between 15 and 50 years ago that retains its original design integrity and contributes significantly to the public realm of the community in which it is located.

The Landmark Award

ASLA 2018 Landmark Award. From Weapons to Wildlife: The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Management Plan. Douglas County, Colorado. Design Workshop Inc. (Denver, Colorado) / Image

From Weapons to Wildlife: The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Management Plan (Douglas County, Colorado)
by Design Workshop Inc. (Denver, Colorado)

The professional awards jury included:

  • Mark A. Focht, FASLA, Chair, New York City Parks and Recreation, New York City
  • Gerdo Aquino, FASLA, SWA Group, Los Angeles
  • Anita Berrizbeitia, ASLA, Harvard Graduate School of Design, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • Christian Gabriel, ASLA, U.S. General Services Administration, Washington, D.C.
  • Terry Guen-Murray, FASLA, Terry Guen Design Associates, Chicago
  • Dale Jaeger, FASLA, WLA Studio, Athens, Georgia
  • Sam Lubell, Journalist, New York City
  • Patrick Phillips, Urban Land Institute, Washington, D.C.
  • Barbara Wilks, FASLA, W Architecture + Landscape Architecture LLC, New York City

For the selection of the Research Category, the jury was joined by M. Elen Deming, FASLA, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, for the Landscape Architecture Foundation (LAF) and Ashley Steffens, ASLA, College of Environment and Design, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia for the Council of Educators in Landscape Architecture (CELA).

ASLA Announces 2018 Student Awards

ASLA 2018 Student General Design Award of Excellence. In Between Walls, Pyramid Lake, Nevada. Niloufar Makaremi Esfarjani, Student ASLA, University of Toronto

The American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) proudly announces the 27 winners of the ASLA 2018 Student Awards. Selected from 332 entries representing 17 schools, the awards honor the top work of landscape architecture students in the United States and around the world.

The winners will receive their awards at the ASLA 2018 Annual Meeting and EXPO in Philadelphia on Monday, October 22, at the Pennsylvania Convention Center.

The September issue of Landscape Architecture Magazine (LAM) features the winning projects and is available for free viewing.

Winning projects are designated as either an honor award or an award of excellence, which is the highest possible distinction.

General Design Category

Award of Excellence
In Between Walls, Pyramid Lake, Nevada
by Niloufar Makaremi Esfarjani, Student ASLA, University of Toronto

Honor Awards
Myth, Memory, and Landscape in the Pyramid Lake Paiute Reservation, Pyramid Lake, Nevada
by Derek Lazo, Student ASLA, and Serena Lousich, Student ASLA, University of California, Berkeley

Sharawadgi Garden: A New Understanding of Chinoiserie for a Chinese Garden at the MoMA, Museum of Modern Art, New York
by Douglas A. Breuer, Student ASLA, University of Pennsylvania

Songs from the Ocean, Dancers from the Land: Rendering an Ecological Choreography of Coastal Habitats in Phuket, Thailand, Phuket, Thailand
by Kate Jirasiritham, Student ASLA, The City College of New York

Stop Making Sense: Spatializing the Hanford Site’s Nuclear Legacy, Hanford, Washington
by Kasia Keeley, Student ASLA, and Andrew Prindle, Student ASLA, University of Washington

Wetness behind the sc/een: Re-wetting the Oran, Tilwara, Rajasthan, India
by Cyrus Sohrab Khan, Student ASLA, University of Pennsylvania

Residential Design Category

ASLA 2018 Student Residential Award of Excellence. Baseco: A New Housing Paradigm, Manila, Philippines. Julio F. Torres Santana, Student ASLA, Yinan Liu, Student ASLA, Aime Vailes-Macarie, Harvard University Graduate School of Design

Award of Excellence
Baseco: A New Housing Paradigm, Manila, Philippines
by Julio F. Torres Santana, Student ASLA, Yinan Liu, Student ASLA, Aime Vailes-Macarie, Harvard University Graduate School of Design

Honor Award
The Snow [RESERVE]: Dynamic Microclimate Strategies for South Boston Living, Boston
by Sunmee Lee, Student ASLA, and Phia Sennett, Student ASLA, Harvard University Graduate School of Design

Analysis and Planning Category

ASLA 2018 Student Analysis and Planning Award of Excellence. ‘El retorno a la tierra’ / ‘Going back to the land’, Las Marías, Puerto Rico. Nicole Rivera-Ramos, Student ASLA, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY ESF)

Award of Excellence
‘El retorno a la tierra’ / ‘Going back to the land’, Las Marías, Puerto Rico
by Nicole Rivera-Ramos, Student ASLA, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY ESF)

Honor Awards
Bloom! A Dynamic Landscape Biological System, Fort Worth, Texas
by Xiwei Shen, Student ASLA, Jiawen Chen, Student ASLA, Chengzhe Zhang, Student ASLA, Harvard University Graduate School of Design

Developing with Water: A Landscape-driven Regulatory Framework, New Orleans
by Meikang Li, Student ASLA, University of Toronto

Pyro-Diversion: Planning for Fire in the San Gabriel Valley, Glendora, California
by Sarah Toth, Student ASLA, The City College of New York

Terre d’eau – Land of water, St. Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada
by Marianne Lafontaine-Chicha, Student ASLA, University of Toronto

Topographic Urban Expansion – A Landscape Armature on Hillsides of Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico
by Qiwei Song, Student ASLA, University of Toronto

Waters in Peril: Collective Measures for a Dying Lake Winnipeg, Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
by Jaysen Ariola, Student ASLA, University of Toronto

Communications Category

ASLA 2018 Student Communications Award of Excellence. ‘Korea Remade’: A Guide to the Reuse of the DMZ and Hinterlands towards Unification, Border of Republic of Korea and Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Xiwei Shen, Student ASLA, Jiawen Chen, Student ASLA, Siyu Jiang, Student ASLA, Harvard University Graduate School of Design

Award of Excellence
‘Korea Remade’: A Guide to the Reuse of the DMZ and Hinterlands towards Unification, Border of Republic of Korea and Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
by Xiwei Shen, Student ASLA, Jiawen Chen, Student ASLA, Siyu Jiang, Student ASLA, Harvard University Graduate School of Design

Honor Awards
District Hill Cemetery Master Plan, Chickamauga, Georgia
by Arianne Wolfe, Student ASLA, and Devyn Quick, Student ASLA, University of Georgia

The Living Things Nursery Catalogue and Guide to Climate
by Bonnie-Kate Walker, Student ASLA, University of Virginia

Public Space Design Guidelines for Saltillo, Mexico, Saltillo, Mexico
by a team of students from the University of Texas at Austin

A Student’s Guide to Environmental Justice Version 1.3, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
by Kari Spiegelhalter, Student ASLA, Tess Ruswick, Student ASLA, Patricia Noto, Student ASLA, Cornell University, Rhode Island School of Design

Research Category

ASLA 2018 Student Research Award of Excellence. Restoring Diversity: Factors Influencing Revegetation Efforts in the Mojave Desert, Joshua Tree National Park and Mojave Desert Land Trust. Marinna Wagner, Student ASLA, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

Award of Excellence
Restoring Diversity: Factors Influencing Revegetation Efforts in the Mojave Desert, Joshua Tree National Park and Mojave Desert Land Trust
by Marinna Wagner, Student ASLA, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

Student Collaboration Category

ASLA 2018 Student Collaboration Award of Excellence. The One Tree Project, St. Louis, Missouri, by a team of students at Washington University in St. Louis.

Award of Excellence
The One Tree Project, St. Louis, Missouri
by a team of students at Washington University in St. Louis

Honor Award
Thermal Thresholds, Minto, Alaska
by Yin Yu Fong, Katie Kelly, Student ASLA, Anna Morrison, University of Virginia

Community Service Category

ASLA 2018 Student Community Service Award of Excellence. Children’s Garden: Strengthening Mother-Child Relationships within Prison Walls, Mitchellville, Iowa. A team of students at Iowa State University / Image

Award of Excellence
Children’s Garden: Strengthening Mother-Child Relationships within Prison Walls, Mitchellville, Iowa
by a team of students at Iowa State University

Honor Awards
Croatian Monastery Continues to Heal: A Community Restorative Garden for Youth, the Blind, and the Elderly with Disabilities, Rijeka, Croatia
by a team of students at the University of Washington

Dolores Street Pollinator Boulevard, San Francisco
by Julia Prince, Student ASLA, Benjamin Heim, University of California, Berkeley

Jazz Fence, Chicago
by Jiaming Sun, Student ASLA, and Yu Si, Student ASLA, Illinois Institute of Technology

The student awards jury included:

  • Roberto Rovira, ASLA, Chair, Florida International University, Miami
  • Andrea Cochran, FASLA, Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture, San Francisco
  • Kurt Culbertson, FASLA, Design Workshop, Aspen, Colorado
  • Tom Dallessio, Professional Planner and Policy Expert, Philadelphia
  • Jennifer Daniels, ASLA, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
  • Ray Gastil, City of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh
  • Jeffrey Hou, ASLA, University of Washington, Seattle
  • Elizabeth Kennedy, ASLA, Elizabeth Kennedy Landscape Architect, Brooklyn, New York
  • Lucinda Sanders, FASLA, OLIN, Philadelphia

Unity Park Anchors Equitable Development in Greenville

Unity Park / MKSK Studios

New reconciliation parks in the South — like the Gathering Place in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Red Mountain Park in Birmingham, Alabama — are explicitly designed to bring together previously-segregated communities. But the new Unity Park in Greenville, South Carolina, goes a step further: it will not only bridge communities but also actually merge two once-segregated parks. Meadowbrook Park, which was once white-only, and Mayberry Park, a smaller green space designated for African Americans, will come together in the new 60-acre Unity Park while still maintaining their distinct histories and identities. This inclusive, $40-million green space is expected to open in 2020.

According to Darren Meyer, ASLA, principal at Ohio-based MKSK Studios, an urban design and landscape architecture firm, the park comes out of a broader planning process for the Reedy River Development Area, an area just west of downtown Greenville. The goal for the city is to create more equitable downtown neighborhoods, with the new park at the center.

In an interview, Meyer said the park is only one component of a new “community character plan” for a 350-acre district that includes form-based code, mixed-use developments, affordable housing, and transportation. A ring of new affordable housing will be built around the park, in an attempt to prevent Unity Park from inadvertently becoming a gentrifying force that displaces the existing community.

According to Meyer, the city has increased investment into its affordable housing trust fund, which is also receiving private and philanthropic funds. The first round of affordable housing is now being built while work begins on the underlying park infrastructure.

Unity Park will include a 120-feet-tall observation tower, which will act as a beacon at night; a great lawn; nature and “destination” playgrounds; a gathering space and visitors center; and pedestrian bridge to improve connectivity.

Unity Park observation tower / MKSK Studios
Unity Park great lawn / MKSK Studios
Destination playground / MKSK Studios
Unity Park gathering space / MKSK Studios
Unity Park pedestrian bridge / MKSK Studios

The city brought an inclusive, community-based planning effort that won approval from African American communities along the park. Greenville News reports that “Mary Duckett, head of the traditionally low-income and African-American Southernside neighborhood association….has been satisfied that its voice was heard and that the park will be one that is welcoming for all.”

Meyer said the planning process was viewed as successful because project leaders “put a tremendous amount of effort into cultivating good relationships. They knew that is really the foundation of trust and a key part to inclusive decision-making.”

Unity Park / MKSK Studios

As part of neighborhood planning and outreach, the city brought in a fire truck that kids could play on; a mobile recreation vehicle, with sports play equipment; and hosted a cook-out for 300 community residents. “These were great events designed to build community.”

MKSK also coordinated planning and design community meetings, with the goal of collecting stories, including those about the African American minor league baseball team that plays in Mayberry Park, and incorporating them into an authentic design. That led to a temporary installation — a mosaic of names of baseball players set into steps leading to the baseball field.

Meyer said the park is not just about re-connecting once-segregated parks, but also about re-connecting the community to a lost river ecosystem. Some 2,000-feet of the Reedy River that runs through the park will be taken out of its concrete channel and become a showpiece of ecological restoration. MKSK will significantly widen the riparian corridor and treat the floodplain in the park as an ecological system.

Unity Park view of the wetlands and river / MKSK Studios

MKSK made the case to city leaders that “the health of the river is tied to the health of the community. There is a quantifiable public health benefit to bringing back the river and wetlands. Beyond the ecological uplift, there is also a great educational opportunity.”

Read more about the park in Greenville News.

Trolls Invade Morton Arboretum

Rocky Bardur troll dislikes cars / Thomas Dambo

Trolls live in caves, rocks, or mountains. They live long lives, are very strong, but are known to be slow and somewhat dim-witted. They aren’t fond of humans and have even been known to eat a few.

In Morton Arboretum in northern Illinois, six wooden trolls have taken over, thanks to the inventive Danish artist Thomas Dambo. Each is about 30-feet-tall, except for a reclining one that is 60-feet long, and made of recycled wood. These installations are part of Troll Hunt, an inspired exhibition that will take families on nature walks in search of these dangerous creatures.

Troll snack / Thomas Dambo
Troll snack / Thomas Dambo

Visitors can take a hike along a 6-7 mile route through the 1,700-acre arboretum to find all six trolls, drive or bike to them, or take a “troll tram ride.” There’s a fun troll hunt map that only adds to the sense of adventure.

Chip Sullivan, FASLA, a professor of landscape architecture at the University of California at Berkeley, has called for bringing mythology back to our landscapes, to imbue them with deeper meaning that can connect us to stories from the past.

Wood troll / Thomas Dambo

Through thousands of years of Norse mythology and Scandinavian folklore, trolls have been seen as powerful supernatural beings who are capable of great mischief.

Troll trap / Thomas Dambo
Troll net / Thomas Dambo

They have been stirring our imagination for centuries — and in Morton Arboretum the myth is so much fun.

ASLA Launches New Guide to Transportation

ASLA 2009 Professional Award of Excellence. Buffalo Bayou Promenade, Houston, Texas. SWA Group / Tom Fox

The American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) has launched a new guide to transportation, with in-depth sections on how to plan and design more sustainable regional, urban, neighborhood, and street transportation systems.

Transportation infrastructure is a significant part of the landscape. The original social network, it connects us to families and friends, jobs and businesses, education and recreation, and is a vital part of the public realm. However, conventional, car-centric approaches to transportation have contributed to negative outcomes for people and the environment:

These outcomes are not inevitable, however. Sustainable transportation is:

Low-emission: Sustainable transportation systems don’t contribute to climate change; instead, they encourage low-emission modes of transportation such as mass transit, biking, or walking. Sustainable land use practices such as transit oriented development facilitate multi-modal systems where residents can easily walk or bike to meet basic daily needs. Landscape architects plan regions, cities, and neighborhoods and design streets that support widespread adoption of low-emission transportation options.

Active: A lifestyle organized around human-powered transportation choices such as walking and biking is healthy. A 2016 report found that walkable, transit-oriented communities increased physical fitness and mental health. Residents of such communities were also more likely to meet or exceed daily physical activity recommendations. Landscape architects encourage active transportation by designing safe, pleasant routes for walking and biking.

Safe: The World Resources Institute estimates that more than 1 million lives could be saved annually from wider adoption of traffic calming measures such as lower speed limits, reduced lane widths, and protected medians. Landscape architects design for safety and help cities eliminate serious injuries and fatalities on roadways.

Equitable: Access to such healthy, sustainable transportation options should be viewed as a right. All residents—regardless of their income, race, age, disability, religion or national origin—should have access to affordable, safe, accessible, multi-modal transportation options that allow them to fully participate in the community. Landscape architects facilitate community-driven planning, policy making, and design that includes all members of the community, especially those most affected by poverty, communities of color, and historically-marginalized communities.

Resilient: Extreme weather events can easily shut down transportation networks. Multi-modal transportation systems are resilient to the uncertainties posed by climate change, such as rising temperatures, more frequent and intense storms, and sea level rise. Landscape architects design systems with multiple, interconnected transportation options that create redundancy and flexibility, qualities that help communities evacuate and rebuild quickly in the face of natural disasters.

Ecological: A sustainable transportation network is ecological, working with natural systems to capture and filter stormwater, reduce flooding, support pollinator species, strengthen biodiversity, and protect wildlife populations. With green infrastructure, wildlife crossings, pollinator highways, and environmentally-sensitive roadway alignment, design, and construction, landscape architects integrate nature into our transportation networks, reaping the benefits of ecosystem services while minimizing conflict between humans and wildlife.

Beautiful: As a major component of our landscape and public realm, transportation infrastructure should be beautiful, inviting, and memorable. Thoughtful design creates durable, lasting spaces that forge community identity, equity, and ownership. Landscape architects ensure that transportation infrastructure contributes to the aesthetic value of the built environment.

A special thanks to our expert advisory panel for their guidance: Diane Jones Allen, D. Eng, ASLA, PLA, associate professor and program director of landscape architecture, University of Texas, Arlington, and principal, DesignJones LLC; Jean Senechal Biggs, ASLA, senior project manager, DKS Associates; and Robert Loftis, PLA, ASLA, associate landscape architect, MRWM Landscape Architects.

This guide is a living resource, so we invite you to submit research, studies, articles, and projects you’d like to see included.

Explore guide sections: overview, regional, urban, neighborhood, and street.

The Big Impact of Small Cell Infrastructure

Small cell photo simulation / City of Gaithersburg, Crown Castle

Autonomous vehicles, augmented reality, smart cities, the internet of things – these and other emerging technologies will require wireless connectivity, and lots of it. In response, wireless service providers are working to bolster their wireless networks by deploying low-power miniature antennas called small cells, which supplement larger cell towers and can deliver lightning-fast 5G service.

Small cells might seem innocuous enough. They are, after all, much smaller than a standard cell tower. However, because their range is limited, small cells must be deployed in dense networks to provide continuous service. By some estimates, providers will need to install small cells every 250 to 300 feet to provide adequate coverage. And since each provider has their own network, full scale deployment of small cell infrastructure could result in the installation on thousands of new antennas on city streets and rights-of-way.

The challenge posed by small cell infrastructure was laid bare at a recent U.S. Commission of Fine Arts (CFA) meeting, where National Capital Planning Commission (NCPC) staff planner Michael Bello gave a talk on small cell deployment in Washington, D.C.

Bello indicated that small cell infrastructure could, in many cases, be mounted on existing infrastructure such as telephone poles, street lights, or bus stops. Still, the sheer number of antennas required all but guarantees the deployment of small cells will have a visual impact on the public realm.

“I want to underscore that the implementation of this technology could result in thousands of small cell antennas and related equipment across the city, and it may result in several per block,” said Bello.

austin
A small cell installation in Austin, Texas / Crown Castle

Small cells could result in “impacts to our viewsheds, historic character, access and circulation, and potential for more streetscape clutter.”

The Washington, D.C. department of transportation (DDOT) – the agency with permitting jurisdiction for right-of-way infrastructure – has already entered into master license agreements with multiple cell service providers for small cell deployment on DC streets.

Bello said that the NCPC is working with DDOT, along with a number of other agencies, to develop design guidelines for this new infrastructure.

“The guidelines will address various aspects of placement and design, including general design specification, spacing between small cell poles, distance from tree boxes and root systems, accessibility, the number of poles per block, and the poles design and finish.”

Public comments indicated that, for some residents, these guidelines may not be enough. Georgetown ANC Commissioner Joe Gibbons and Citizens Association of Georgetown board member Elsa Santoyo both voiced concern about the impact of small cells could have on the historic character of Georgetown and urged that small cell installations be subjected to a formal design review process, something not required by DDOT’s existing agreement with service providers.

DDOT manager Kathryn Roos said her agency’s agreement with service providers did not preclude such oversight. “The master license agreement is explicit in saying that the small cell companies must get whatever approval that is needed.”

“DDOT’s role in this is really as a facilitator. We saw that this was a particularly sensitive program, and so we reached out to our partners at NCPC, CFA, and SHPO (State Historic Preservation Office) to help facilitate a conversation.”

CFA Commissioner Toni Griffin pushed back against that characterization of DDOT’s role: “To the extent this can be viewed as privately-operated public infrastructure, I think we’re going to need a public owner and advocate — and not just a facilitator.”

In other jurisdictions, legal battles have broken out between state and local governments over who has the right to decide how cell service providers can deploy small cell technology – and how much they have to pay for the right to do so on publicly controlled rights-of-way.

According to the National Conference of State Legislatures, twenty states have passed laws intended to facilitate small cell deployment. Many of these laws achieve this goal by limiting local regulation of the deployment process. These efforts are often backed by the CTIA, a trade organization that represents the wireless communications industry.

The federal government has also begun to take note of the issue. Earlier this summer, Senator John Thune (R-SD) introduced the STREAMLINE Small Cell Deployment Act (S. 3157), which would require local agencies to process small cell applications within 60 to 90 days and limit the amount that municipalities can charge service providers for the use of the public right of way. And in March, the the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) voted to adopted rules intended to reduce regulatory hurdle to small cell deployment.

Local leaders, for their part, have argued that local regulations are not a major obstacle to deployment. In a letter to the FCC ahead of the commission’s March meeting, three dozen mayors and local leaders insisted that “our communities strongly desire more options for high quality internet access, and we are happy to work collaboratively with any Internet Service Providers (ISPs) that are willing to provide such opportunities. However, our residents and businesses appropriately balk at the placement of a 100-foot monopole on their lawn with no recourse, or to having their local government’s hands tied when it comes to the public recovering just compensation for the use of the public’s right of way.”

Small cell photo simulation / Montgomery County, Crown Castle

At the CFA meeting, Commissioner Griffin envisioned a more creative approach to the issue. “Maybe we should ask the service providers to sponsor a design competition to help us bring more voices to the table and solve the problem. Design guidelines will get us some of the way, but not all the way.”

A Cost-Effective Way to Treat Depression: Greening Vacant Lots

Before: An empty lot in Philadelphia / JAMA Open Network
After: A Green lot in Philadelphia / JAMA Open Network

A tree, some grass, a low wooden fence, regular maintenance. With these basic elements, an unloved, vacant lot can be transformed from being a visual blight and drain on a community into a powerful booster of mental health.

According to a new study by five doctors at the University of Pennsylvania, residents of low-income communities in Philadelphia who saw their vacant lots greened by the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society experienced “significant decreases” in feelings of depression and worthlessness. And this positive change happened for just $1,500 per lot.

For lead author Dr. Eugenia South and her co-authors, this is a clear indication that the physical environment impacts our mental health. And planning and design offers a cost-effective way to fight mental illness in light of the sky-rocketing costs of doctor and emergency room visits and drug prescriptions.

In many low-income communities, vacant and dilapidated spaces are “unavoidable conditions that residents encounter every day, making the very existence of these spaces a constant source of stress.” Furthermore, these neighborhoods with vacant lots, trash, and “lack of quality infrastructure such as sidewalks and parks, are associated with depression and are factors that that may explain the persistent prevalence of mental illness.”

Conversely, neighborhoods that feel cared for — that are well-maintained, free of trash and run-down lots, and offer access to green spaces — are associated with “improved mental health outcomes, including less depression, anxiety, and stress.”

This means that cleaning up empty lots in low-income communities can potentially buffer the negative mental impacts of living in a low-income neighborhood.

Some 541 vacant lots were studied in the trial. One third of these lots were greened; one third just had their trash cleaned up; and one third experienced no change. The researchers only included lots that were less than 5,500 square feet, had significant blight — “illegal dumping, abandoned cars, and/or unmanaged vegetation” — and been abandoned by their owners.

Lots in the study / JAMA Open Network

Each lot selected for greening underwent a “standard, reproducible process” that involved “removing trash and debris, grading the land, planting new grass and a small number of trees, installing a low wooden perimeter fence with openings, and performing regular maintenance.” Cleaned-up lots saw their their garbage removed; they were also mowed and given regular maintenance.

Some 342 people who lived in neighborhoods near these lots agreed to have their mental health assessed both before and after the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society intervened. After choosing an address closest to the lots, teams of researchers fanned out across Philly, selecting participants at random, who were given $25 to complete a survey that took 40 minutes on average.

“Participants were asked to indicated how often they felt nervous, hopeless, restless, depressed, that everything was an effort, and worthless using the following scale: all of the time, most of the time, more than half the time, less than half the time, some of the time, or no time.”

South and her co-authors contend that greening lots was associated with a “significant reduction in feeling depressed and worthless as well as a non-significant reduction in overall self-reported poor mental health.” The trash clean-up alone didn’t lead to any reduction in negative feelings.

In Philly, greening a lot cost just $1,500 and required around $180 in maintenance a year. In other cities and communities with significant amounts of blight, that amount would likely be a lot less.

Beyond the mental health gains, greening lots can increase “community cohesion, social capital, and collective efficacy.” Given the many associated benefits, greening lots in low-income communities is a no-brainer.

Landscape Architecture in the News Highlights (August 1 – 15)

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Ella Fitzgerald Park, Detroit / Spackman Mossop Michaels

A High Line for Houston? Texas Medical Center News, 8/1/18
“Landscape architect James Corner will bring his vision to TMC3’s Helix Park.”

San Francisco’s Imposing Transit Center Ready to Roll at Last The San Francisco Chronicle, 8/6/18
“For the past decade, the transit center that will replace San Francisco’s Transbay Terminal has been the subject of grand plans and political controversies, struggles to stay on schedule and squabbles over costs.”

How a New Park Fits Detroit’s Plan to Bring Its Neighborhoods Back CityLab, 8/7/18
“The reuse of over a dozen vacant lots in the Fitzgerald neighborhood illustrates the city’s holistic approach to redevelopment outside of downtown.”

Saying Goodbye to the Godfather of Gas Works Park Crosscut, 8/7/18
“Richard Haag, a leader in the fight against unchecked urban development, has died.”

Transforming Tulsa, Starting with a Park The New York Times, 8/10/18
“The Olmsted-style transformation of 66 acres in the central city is now Gathering Place, a much-anticipated $465 million park that opens Sept. 8 as one of the largest and most ambitious public parks ever created with private funds — and the latest example of deep-pocketed citizens rebuilding cities through projects they perceive to be in the public good.”

Landscape Architecture in the News Highlights (July 16 – 31)

hunters-point-south-waterfront-park-new-york-SWA-balsley-weiss-manfredi-designboom-03
Aerial view of Hunters Point South’s ‘Peninsula’ / Bill Tatham / SWA/balsley

Abandoned Industrial Landscape Transformed into New Waterfront Park in NYC Designboom, 7/17/18
“New York has welcomed a waterfront park at hunter’s point south, a mixed-use development in long island city.”

A Mile High and 20,000 Acres Deep: How Denver’s Parks Make Growth Livable Next City, 7/19/18
“Meanwhile, advocates for open space, from elected officials, non-profit leaders, both public and private sector champions, have been busily developing strategies for Denver’s great, enduring and largely unsung hero — the parks system.”

Transforming Stormwater from a Nuisance to a Necessity Pacific Standard, 7/20/18
“A conversation with Morgan Shimabuku about municipal stormwater leaders, overcoming barriers, and how better use of stormwater can increase climate change resilience.”

Perkins+Will Architect: Atlanta Should Tap Potential of Chattahoochee, Freedom ParkCurbed Atlanta, 7/27/18
“In an op-ed, landscape pro with the firm behind the Beltline asserts: We can transform Atlanta’s identity from one of standstill traffic to a network of green.”

24,000 Documents Detailing Life of Landscape Architect Frederick Law Olmsted Now Available Online Smithsonian, 7/31/18
“When 19th-century landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted was 14 years old, his natural affinity for the rural New England outdoors took a dangerous turn when a brush with poison sumac left him half-blinded.”

New Study: Technology Undermines the Restorative Benefits of Nature

Laptop user in a park / istockphoto

We experience “soft fascination” with nature when we sit on a park bench and let our mind wander, taking in the trees and flowers, noticing birds and squirrels, feeling the breeze. This gentle decompression in nature is actually critical to helping us restore our ability to pay attention. We need breaks where our minds can just go slack and subconsciously take in the complexity of the natural world. Researchers are still trying to figure out the ideal “dose” of this green medicine, but benefits have been seen with just 10 minutes.

New research argues those breaks in nature only help if we put down our laptops and other devices. A recent study published in Environment and Behavior contends that using laptops, smartphones, and other technologies while sitting on that park bench undoes all the good attention-boosting benefits of nature.

Attention is an important resource not to be wasted. We need the capacity to pay attention to make our way through our busy lives. According to the study’s authors — Bin Jiang, with the University of Hong Kong; Rose Schmillen, a landscape designer; and William C. Sullivan, ASLA, professor of landscape architecture at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign — “a person who cannot focus his or her attention is likely to miss important details and have trouble remembering details. Compared with someone who is not mentally fatigued, a person with low attention functioning is more likely to be irritable, have trouble with self-management, struggle to resist temptations, and miss subtle social cues. When a person is mentally fatigued, he or she is less effective in pursuing goals and interacting with others. A person with depleted attention is more likely to say or do things he/she might regret later, which can affect relationships, work performance, and even personal goals such as losing weight or saving money.”

In their experiment, Bin, Schmillen, and Sullivan set 81 participants (50 women and 31 men), aged 17 to 35, in a few environments to test their theory on how a laptop “substantially counteracts the attention enhancement effects of green spaces.”

After doing 10 minutes of taxing cognitive testing — 5 minutes of subtraction exercises and 5 minutes of memorization indoors — participants were asked to take a 15-minute break. But they were given four different types of breaks: participants either sat in a “barren” outdoor space or a green space filled with trees.

Examples of barren spaces where participants took a break / Environment and Behavior
Examples of green spaces where participants took a break / Environment and Behavior

Some were given a laptop and asked to use them for “non-work” related leisure activities, such as social media, news sites, YouTube, blogs, online games, or shopping. Those given a laptop were asked to “sit on a fixed chair or bench in the shade to maintain a comfortable temperature and to reduce screen glare.” Others didn’t get a laptop. After the break, their ability to pay attention was tested again.

The experiment found “the only condition that produced an increase of attentional functioning was a green setting in which the participants didn’t have a laptop.” The authors believe this confirms the attention-boosting benefits of nature are “undermined by the use of an electronic device.” In an email, Sullivan confirmed the effect of a smartphone or tablet would be “identical” to the laptop.

Top line indicates improvement in attention functioning after a break in a green space without a laptop / Environment and Behavior

For Sullivan and the other authors, this means policymakers, planners, landscape architects and designers need to ensure green spaces are close-by and easily accessible from dense environments, especially workplaces, educational institutions, and hospitals — places where people’s attention is constantly taxed and where nature’s restorative benefits are even more critical.

Landscape architects and designers also need to up their game and create green spaces that can divert our attention from our addictive devices.

Sullivan told me: “The findings here present a challenge for landscape architects. In the past, it was enough to design and build nature-rich cities — just by being in such places, people would get a range of health benefits. But with the ubiquitous use of mobile devices, one of the most important benefits of being in nature-rich urban space might be lost. The challenge is to create even more engaging landscapes — landscapes that encourage people to put their phones down and be in the moment.” Those attention-sustaining features could include “moving water, wildlife, fire, or other natural elements that move and change.”